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TEM Applications

TEM has a long history in the aviation industry. While initially developed as LOSA’s primary measure, TEM has evolved into much more over the years.


Below are some typical applications of how TEM has evolved into other applications.

Performance Aide

TEM offers a heuristic for frontline workers to remain mindful of threats, errors, and undesired states and their effect on performance in an ever-changing and complex operational environment.

Incident/Accident Analysis

TEM is commonly used by investigators to parse and better understand the causes of aviation incidents and accidents. TEM has served as a sensemaking tool in many industry safety studies and accident reports produced by the NTSB and other transportation safety boards


TEM training is designed to help frontline workers manage threats, errors, and undesired states with tools and techniques. The ICAO Annexes, which document the standards and recommended practices for the world’s aviation operators, require TEM training for pilots and other organizational stakeholders.

Enhance Safety Mindfulness

TEM offers a dependent performance measure for researchers who want a better understanding of the systemic, team, and individual influences on safety and efficiency, emphasizing how frontline workers display resilience when confronted with threats, errors, or undesired states.

Safety Management System (SMS) Diagnostic

Perhaps, TEM’s most salient application is when it serves as a measure to monitor performance in everyday operations. Using TEM in this manner drives the LOSA process and is what The LOSA Collaborative offers in its primary portfolio of services.

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